A title tag is a HTML element which titles the page (surprise!). This is important because the title is displayed to the user in Google's SERPs (i.e, search). Without a clear, accurate, targeted title, people won't click through to your website.
The affect title tags have on your organic rank is debatable, and this article will avoid go into arguments for or against or to what degree they affect it. However, from a practical standpoint, they will affect your website's click-through-rate. The change to your click-through-rate, positive and negative, are due to clarity and user intent. For example, if you're selling sprockets and google returns an empty title tag in the search result (or more commonly it returns some default text from that page), the user won't be guided or motivated to click your page.
I really want to emphasize clarity here. A title tag needs to be treated like a proper headline for your blog post or your opening line in your sales pitch. It must grab their attention and say, HERE, HERE IS WHAT YOU WANT RIGHT HERE, CLICK ME NOW!
Clarity is your friend. So, clearly state exactly what the user will find when they click on the link.
One last important point: Google returns an incredible amount of results for every search. This means your title tag is always competing with its surrounding titles (including advertisements), so, carefully think about what you're placing there because people will naturally gravitate towards the titles closest to their intent.
That's about it!
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